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Passports of specialties

01.03.00 – ASTRONOMY

Specialty code:
01.03.01 – Astronomy.
Specialty formula:

Astronomy is a field of science that studies the physical processes on space objects and in space media, as well as the origin, movement and evolution of space objects and their systems, including the evolution of the Universe as a whole. The creation and use of new instruments, methods of observation and their interpretation, the creation and improvement of the physical picture of the world, the disclosure of the nature of the observed processes and phenomena in outer space and on space objects, the use of the information obtained for the development of other scientific specialties and, above all, the fundamental directions of physics and related areas of astronomy will contribute to the development of scientific views on the nature of the world, the formation of the scientific worldview of society in research research of cosmic processes leading to the formation of planets and the origin and development of life in the Universe.
Research Areas:
- Development of methods for determining the position in space and the motion of celestial bodies based on ground-based and extra-atmospheric astronomical observations, including using radar and laser ranging. Determination of mass, shape and gravitational fields of celestial bodies based on the analysis of ground-based observations and data obtained using spacecraft;
- Dynamic evolution of celestial body systems at various time scales;
- Earth rotation parameters;
-The internal structure of the Sun and the physical processes occurring in the bowels of the Sun;
- Solar activity and cycles of solar activity at various time scales;
- The structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere (convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona), magnetic fields and active phenomena. Solar-terrestrial physics and solar-terrestrial connections;
- Physical and physico-chemical processes in planetary atmospheres, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, the processes of their formation and evolution. Development of atmospheric models of planets, their satellites and comets;
- The surface structure of the bodies of the solar system, physical characteristics, chemical and mineral composition of the surface layer;
- The origin and evolution of the solar system;
- Physical properties of space objects (planets, stars, galaxies and their systems) of the interplanetary, circumstellar, interstellar and intergalactic medium, based on astronomical observations;
- The origin, movement and evolution of space objects based on fundamental physical theories and astronomical observations;
- The large-scale structure and cosmological evolution of the Universe as a whole, including the early stages of its expansion, the origin of galaxies, stars, planets and their systems;
- Cosmic factors that determine the conditions for the formation and existence of life on Earth and other planets.
Related specialties:
01.04.02 – Theoretical physics; 04/01/08 - Physics of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles. Accelerator Technique
Branch of science:
physical and mathematical sciences
Technical science

01.04.00 – PHYSICS

Specialty code:
01.04.01 – Instruments and methods of experimental physics
Specialty formula:
Instruments and methods of experimental physics is a field of science and technology, including experimental and theoretical studies aimed at developing new principles and methods of physical measurements, increasing their accuracy, using physical phenomena in technical applications, solving scientific problems of constructing new physical facilities, as well as creating new instruments and devices for studying physical phenomena and processes.
Research Areas:
- Development of new principles and methods for measuring physical quantities, which can significantly increase the accuracy, sensitivity and speed of measurements. Development and creation of scientific equipment, facilities and instruments for experimental research in various fields of physics, astronomy and astrophysics;
- Development and application of physical, physico-chemical, nuclear-physical and other methods of analysis, the use of applied nuclear physics methods in the optimization of technological processes, the extraction of noble, valuable and rare metals;
- Development of methods and technologies for obtaining sources of ionizing radiation, radionuclides and preparations based on them, methods for the separation of radioisotopes; synthesis of labeled compounds and methods for their control for use in various sectors of the economy;
- Development and creation of automation tools for a physical experiment, methods for mathematical processing of experimental results. Modeling of physical phenomena and processes;
- Development of nuclear technology techniques for producing organic and inorganic materials and devices with improved properties. Creation and application of methods, tools and devices for the treatment, disinfection and desalination of drinking water, industrial wastewater and air emissions.
Related specialties:
All specialties of the section 01.04.00 - “PHYSICS”, 01.03.01 - “Astronomy” 05.03.01 - “Instruments. Methods of measurement and control (by field). ”
Branch of science:
physical and mathematical sciences
Technical science

Specialty code:
01.04.02 – Theoretical physics
Specialty formula:
Theoretical physics is a field of physics devoted to the mathematical formulation of the laws of physical phenomena observed experimentally. Theoretical physics is a unified science, in which internal relations are established by analytical calculations or numerical calculations and by comparison with experimental data. Its actual content is associated with the entire historical development of physics. The purpose of research in the field of theoretical physics is the most complete description of fundamental physical laws.
Research Areas:
- Condensed matter theory of classical and quantum, macroscopic and microscopic systems. The study of various states of matter and physical phenomena in them. Statistical physics and the kinetic theory of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems.
- General theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics. Physical properties of matter and space-time in the Universe. Classical and quantum cosmology and gravity.
- Theory of fundamental interactions and quantum field theory. The study of phenomena at small scales and at high energies. Development of mathematical methods of field theory.
- General questions of quantum mechanics: fundamentals, measurement theory, general theory of scattering. Quantum theory of physical phenomena in nuclei, atoms and molecules.
- Development of the theory of mesoscopic systems. Quantum information theory and quantum computing.
- The development of the theory and the study of the general properties and laws of nonlinear dynamics of highly nonequilibrium systems. Development of the theory of chaos and turbulence.
Related specialties:
All specialties of the section 01.04.00 - “PHYSICS”, 01.03.01 - “Astronomy”.
Branch of science:
physical and mathematical sciences

Specialty code:
01.04.07 – Condensed Matter Physics
Specialty formula:
Condensed Matter Physics ”is a field of science that studies the physical nature and properties of substances in crystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and liquid states under various environmental conditions and under various external influences.
Research Areas:
- The physical nature and properties of metals and their alloys, inorganic and organic systems, dielectrics, semiconductors and superconductors, depending on their chemical composition, temperature, pressure and radiation.
- Extreme states of condensed matter (strong compression, shock, change in gravitational and magnetic fields, high and low temperatures, high doses of radiation), phase transitions and their phase state diagrams.
- The impact of various physical fields (electromagnetic radiation, particle flux, etc.) on the physical properties of condensed matter.
- Development of mathematical models for constructing phase state diagrams and diagnostics of the physical characteristics of condensed matter depending on their conditions.
- Development of experimental methods for studying physical properties and the creation of the physical foundations of industrial technologies for the production of materials, products with certain properties, including nanostructured.
- Technical and technological applications of condensed matter physics.
Related specialties:
01.04.03 – “Molecular Physics and Thermophysics”, 04/01/06 - “Physics of Polymers”, 01/01/10 - “Physics of Semiconductors”.
Branch of science:
physical and mathematical sciences
Technical science

Specialty code:
01.04.08 – Physics of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles. Accelerator Technique
Specialty formula:
Physics of an atomic nucleus and elementary particles, accelerator technology is a field of fundamental science and technology, including experimental and theoretical studies devoted to the study of the structure of matter, the structure and properties of atomic nuclei and elementary particles, nuclear reactions, the interaction of nuclei with beams of elementary particles, and the clarification of the role of nuclear fundamental interactions at very small distances, in the Universe and in astrophysical phenomena, phenomena and patterns of interaction of leptons, photons, intermediate bosons c, hadrons and ions with matter and the cosmophysical aspects of these phenomena, as well as, including the development of methods, the creation of an experimental base for the production and acceleration of charged particle beams. The significance of the scientific and technical problems of this specialty is to study the fundamental principles of the structure of matter and the development of applications of nuclear physics in economic sectors.
Field of study:
- Physical properties of strong and electroweak interactions, mathematical methods, systems for processing and analyzing data from experimental data on accelerators;
- The structure and decay characteristics of hadrons, leptons and other elementary particles;
- Collisions of light and heavy ions with nuclei at high energy;
- Space physics and its connection with elementary particle physics;
- Creation of an experimental base for methods alternative to accelerator technology and cosmophysical research;
- Physics of the atomic nucleus and nuclear reactions at low and intermediate energies; spectroscopy of atomic nuclei, hadrons; nuclear fission and synthesis;
- Weak and electromagnetic processes in nuclear physics, nuclear neutrino physics;
- Relativistic nuclear physics, multiparticle systems physics, heavy ion physics;
- Cosmic ray physics; Neutron physics;
- Theory of the atomic nucleus and nuclear reactions, physics of low-particle systems;
- Nuclear astrophysics, supernova physics, the origin of elements in the universe;
- Creation of experimental facilities and instruments for research on the structure and interaction of nuclei with beams of nuclei and elementary particles;
- Development and creation of accelerators (drives) of charged particles;
- Development and application of new methods for detecting nuclear radiation;
- Design and construction of new experimental facilities and equipment for research in nuclear physics and cosmic ray physics.
Related specialties:
01.04.01 – «Instruments and methods of experimental physics», 01.04.02 – «Theoretical physics», 01.03.01 – «Astronomy».
Branch of science:
physical and mathematical sciences
Technical science